Human Rights

[Preamble | Manifesto | Agenda]

a) Declararation of Independence of USA:

b) Bill of Rights (the first 10 Amnendments to the US Constitution:

and one, non-US list: c) Universal Declaration of Human Rights


a) Action of Second Continental Congress, July 4, 1776: The unanimous
Declaration of the thirteen United States of America

WHEN in the Course of human Events, it becomes necessary for one People to
dissolve the Political Bands which have connected them with another, and
to assume among the Powers of the Earth, the separate and equal Station to
which the Laws of Nature and of Nature's God entitle them, a decent
Respect to the Opinions of Mankind requires that they should declare the
causes which impel them to the Separation. 

WE hold these Truths to be self-evident, that all Men are created equal,
that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights,
that among these are Life, Liberty and the Pursuit of Happiness -- That to
secure these Rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their
just Powers from the Consent of the Governed, that whenever any Form of
Government becomes destructive of these Ends, it is the Right of the
People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying
its Foundation on such Principles, and organizing its Powers in such Form,
as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness.
Prudence, indeed, will dictate that Governments long established should
not be changed for light and transient Causes; and accordingly all
Experience hath shewn, that Mankind are more disposed to suffer, while
Evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by abolishing the Forms to
which they are accustomed. But when a long Train of Abuses and
Usurpations, pursuing invariably the same Object, evinces a Design to
reduce them under absolute Despotism, it is their Right, it is their Duty,
to throw off such Government, and to provide new Guards for their future
Security. Such has been the patient Sufferance of these Colonies; and such
is now the Necessity which constrains them to alter their former Systems
of Government. The History of the present King of Great- Britain is a
History of repeated Injuries and Usurpations, all having in direct Object
the Establishment of an absolute Tyranny over these States. To prove this,
let Facts be submitted to a candid World. 

HE has refused his Assent to Laws, the most wholesome and necessary for
the public Good. 

HE has forbidden his Governors to pass Laws of immediate and pressing
Importance, unless suspended in their Operation till his Assent should be
obtained; and when so suspended, he has utterly neglected to attend to

HE has refused to pass other Laws for the Accommodation of large Districts
of People, unless those People would relinquish the Right of
Representation in the Legislature, a Right inestimable to them, and
formidable to Tyrants only. 

HE has called together Legislative Bodies at Places unusual,
uncomfortable, and distant from the Depository of their public Records,
for the sole Purpose of fatiguing them into Compliance with his Measures. 

HE has dissolved Representative Houses repeatedly, for opposing with manly
Firmness his Invasions on the Rights of the People. 

HE has refused for a long Time, after such Dissolutions, to cause others
to be elected; whereby the Legislative Powers, incapable of the
Annihilation, have returned to the People at large for their exercise; the
State remaining in the mean time exposed to all the Dangers of Invasion
from without, and the Convulsions within. 

HE has endeavoured to prevent the Population of these States; for that
Purpose obstructing the Laws for Naturalization of Foreigners; refusing to
pass others to encourage their Migrations hither, and raising the
Conditions of new Appropriations of Lands. 

HE has obstructed the Administration of Justice, by refusing his Assent to
Laws for establishing Judiciary Powers. 

HE has made Judges dependent on his Will alone, for the Tenure of their
Offices, and the Amount and Payment of their Salaries. 

HE has erected a Multitude of new Offices, and sent hither Swarms of
Officers to harrass our People, and eat out their Substance. 

HE has kept among us, in Times of Peace, Standing Armies, without the
consent of our Legislatures. 

HE has affected to render the Military independent of and superior to the
Civil Power. 

HE has combined with others to subject us to a Jurisdiction foreign to our
Constitution, and unacknowledged by our Laws; giving his Assent to their
Acts of pretended Legislation: 

FOR quartering large Bodies of Armed Troops among us; 

FOR protecting them, by a mock Trial, from Punishment for any Murders
which they should commit on the Inhabitants of these States: 

FOR cutting off our Trade with all Parts of the World: 

FOR imposing Taxes on us without our Consent: 

FOR depriving us, in many Cases, of the Benefits of Trial by Jury: 

FOR transporting us beyond Seas to be tried for pretended Offences: 

FOR abolishing the free System of English Laws in a neighbouring Province,
establishing therein an arbitrary Government, and enlarging its
Boundaries, so as to render it at once an Example and fit Instrument for
introducing the same absolute Rules into these Colonies: 

FOR taking away our Charters, abolishing our most valuable Laws, and
altering fundamentally the Forms of our Governments: 

FOR suspending our own Legislatures, and declaring themselves invested
with Power to legislate for us in all Cases whatsoever. 

HE has abdicated Government here, by declaring us out of his Protection
and waging War against us. 

HE has plundered our Seas, ravaged our Coasts, burnt our Towns, and
destroyed the Lives of our People. 

HE is, at this Time, transporting large Armies of foreign Mercenaries to
compleat the Works of Death, Desolation, and Tyranny, already begun with
circumstances of Cruelty and Perfidy, scarcely paralleled in the most
barbarous Ages, and totally unworthy the Head of a civilized Nation. 

HE has constrained our fellow Citizens taken Captive on the high Seas to
bear Arms against their Country, to become the Executioners of their
Friends and Brethren, or to fall themselves by their Hands. 

HE has excited domestic Insurrections amongst us, and has endeavoured to
bring on the Inhabitants of our Frontiers, the merciless Indian Savages,
whose known Rule of Warfare, is an undistinguished Destruction, of all
Ages, Sexes and Conditions. 

IN every stage of these Oppressions we have Petitioned for Redress in the
most humble Terms: Our repeated Petitions have been answered only by
repeated Injury. A Prince, whose Character is thus marked by every act
which may define a Tyrant, is unfit to be the Ruler of a free People. 

NOR have we been wanting in Attentions to our British Brethren. We have
warned them from Time to Time of Attempts by their Legislature to extend
an unwarrantable Jurisdiction over us. We have reminded them of the
Circumstances of our Emigration and Settlement here. We have appealed to
their native Justice and Magnanimity, and we have conjured them by the
Ties of our common Kindred to disavow these Usurpations, which, would
inevitably interrupt our Connections and Correspondence.  They too have
been deaf to the Voice of Justice and of Consanguinity. We must,
therefore, acquiesce in the Necessity, which denounces our Separation, and
hold them, as we hold the rest of Mankind, Enemies in War, in Peace,

WE, therefore, the Representatives of the UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, in
GENERAL CONGRESS, Assembled, appealing to the Supreme Judge of the World
for the Rectitude of our Intentions, do, in the Name, and by Authority of
the good People of these Colonies, solemnly Publish and Declare, That
these United Colonies are, and of Right ought to be, FREE AND INDEPENDENT
STATES; that they are absolved from all Allegiance to the British Crown,
and that all political Connection between them and the State of
Great-Britain, is and ought to be totally dissolved; and that as FREE AND
INDEPENDENT STATES, they have full Power to levy War, conclude Peace,
contract Alliances, establish Commerce, and to do all other Acts and
Things which INDEPENDENT STATES may of right do. And for the support of
this Declaration, with a firm Reliance on the Protection of divine
Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our Lives, our Fortunes, and
our sacred Honor. 

b) THE BILL OF RIGHTS Amendments 1-10 of the Constitution

The Conventions of a number of the States having, at the time of adopting
the Constitution, expressed a desire, in order to prevent misconstruction
or abuse of its powers, that further declaratory and restrictive clauses
should be added, and as extending the ground of public confidence in the
Government will best insure the beneficent ends of its institution;

Resolved, by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States
of America, in Congress assembled, two-thirds of both Houses concurring,
that the following articles be proposed to the Legislatures of the several
States, as amendments to the Constitution of the United States; all or any
of which articles, when ratified by three-fourths of the said
Legislatures, to be valid to all intents and purposes as part of the said
Constitution, namely:

Amendment I

Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or
prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech,
or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to
petition the government for a redress of grievances.

Amendment II

A well regulated militia, being necessary to the security of a free state,
the right of the people to keep and bear arms, shall not be infringed.

Amendment III

No soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any house, without the
consent of the owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed
by law. 

Amendment IV

The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and
effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be
violated, and no warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported
by oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be
searched, and the persons or things to be seized.

Amendment V

No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous
crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a grand jury, except in
cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the militia, when in
actual service in time of war or public danger; nor shall any person be
subject for the same offense to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb;
nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against
himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due
process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use,
without just compensation.

Amendment VI

In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a
speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the state and district
wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have
been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and
cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him;
to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to
have the assistance of counsel for his defense.

Amendment VII

In suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty
dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried
by a jury, shall be otherwise reexamined in any court of the United
States, than according to the rules of the common law.

Amendment VIII

Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor
cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.

Amendment IX

The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be
construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people. 

Amendment X

The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor
prohibited by it to the states, are reserved to the states respectively,
or to the people.

c) Universal Declaration of Human Rights

On December 10, 1948 the General Assembly of the United Nations adopted
and proclaimed the Universal Declaration of Human Rights the full text of
which appears in the following pages. Following this historic act the
Assembly called upon all Member countries to publicize the text of the
Declaration and "to cause it to be disseminated, displayed, read and
expounded principally in schools and other educational institutions,
without distinction based on the political status of countries or


Whereas recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and
inalienable rights of all members of the human family is the foundation of
freedom, justice and peace in the world, Whereas disregard and contempt
for human rights have resulted in barbarous acts which have outraged the
conscience of mankind, and the advent of a world in which human beings
shall enjoy freedom of speech and belief and freedom from fear and want
has been proclaimed as the highest aspiration of the common people,

Whereas it is essential, if man is not to be compelled to have recourse,
as a last resort, to rebellion against tyranny and oppression, that human
rights should be protected by the rule of law, Whereas it is essential to
promote the development of friendly relations between nations, Whereas the
peoples of the United Nations have in the Charter reaffirmed their faith
in fundamental human rights, in the dignity and worth of the human person
and in the equal rights of men and women and have determined to promote
social progress and better standards of life in larger freedom, Whereas
Member States have pledged themselves to achieve, in co-operation with the
United Nations, the promotion of universal respect for and observance of
human rights and fundamental freedoms, Whereas a common understanding of
these rights and freedoms is of the greatest importance for the full
realization of this pledge,

OF HUMAN RIGHTS as a common standard of achievement for all peoples and
all nations, to the end that every individual and every organ of society,
keeping this Declaration constantly in mind, shall strive by teaching and
education to promote respect for these rights and freedoms and by
progressive measures, national and international, to secure their
universal and effective recognition and observance, both among the peoples
of Member States themselves and among the peoples of territories under
their jurisdiction.

Article 1. 

All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights.They are
endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a
spirit of brotherhood. 

Article 2. 

Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this
Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex,
language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin,
property, birth or other status. Furthermore, no distinction shall be made
on the basis of the political, jurisdictional or international status of
the country or territory to which a person belongs, whether it be
independent, trust, non-self-governing or under any other limitation of

Article 3. 

Everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of person. 

Article 4. 

No one shall be held in slavery or servitude; slavery and the slave trade
shall be prohibited in all their forms. 

Article 5. 

No one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading
treatment or punishment. 

Article 6. 

Everyone has the right to recognition everywhere as a person before the

Article 7. 

All are equal before the law and are entitled without any discrimination
to equal protection of the law.

All are entitled to equal protection against any discrimination in
violation of this Declaration and against any incitement to such

Article 8. 

Everyone has the right to an effective remedy by the competent national
tribunals for acts violating the fundamental rights granted him by the
constitution or by law. 

Article 9. 

No one shall be subjected to arbitrary arrest, detention or exile. 

Article 10. 

Everyone is entitled in full equality to a fair and public hearing by an
independent and impartial tribunal, in the determination of his rights and
obligations and of any criminal charge against him. 

Article 11. 

(1) Everyone charged with a penal offence has the right to be presumed
innocent until proved guilty according to law in a public trial at which
he has had all the guarantees necessary for his defence. 

(2) No one shall be held guilty of any penal offence on account of any act
or omission which did not constitute a penal offence, under national or
international law, at the time when it was committed. Nor shall a heavier
penalty be imposed than the one that was applicable at the time the penal
offence was committed. 

Article 12. 

No one shall be subjected to arbitrary interference with his privacy,
family, home or correspondence, nor to attacks upon his honour and
reputation. Everyone has the right to the protection of the law against
such interference or attacks. 

Article 13. 

(1) Everyone has the right to freedom of movement and residence within the
borders of each state. 

(2) Everyone has the right to leave any country, including his own, and to
return to his country. 

Article 14. 

(1) Everyone has the right to seek and to enjoy in other countries asylum
from persecution. 

(2) This right may not be invoked in the case of prosecutions genuinely
arising from non-political crimes or from acts contrary to the purposes
and principles of the United Nations. 

Article 15. 

(1) Everyone has the right to a nationality. 

(2) No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his nationality nor denied the
right to change his nationality. 

Article 16. 

(1) Men and women of full age, without any limitation due to race,
nationality or religion, have the right to marry and to found a family.
They are entitled to equal rights as to marriage, during marriage and at
its dissolution. 

(2) Marriage shall be entered into only with the free and full consent of
the intending spouses. 

(3) The family is the natural and fundamental group unit of society and is
entitled to protection by society and the State. 

Article 17. 

(1) Everyone has the right to own property alone as well as in association
with others. 

(2) No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his property. 

Article 18. 

Everyone has the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion;
this right includes freedom to change his religion or belief, and freedom,
either alone or in community with others and in public or private, to
manifest his religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship and

Article 19. 

Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right
includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek,
receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless
of frontiers. 

Article 20. 

(1) Everyone has the right to freedom of peaceful assembly and

(2) No one may be compelled to belong to an association. 

Article 21. 

(1) Everyone has the right to take part in the government of his country,
directly or through freely chosen representatives. 

(2) Everyone has the right of equal access to public service in his

(3) The will of the people shall be the basis of the authority of
government; this will shall be expressed in periodic and genuine elections
which shall be by universal and equal suffrage and shall be held by secret
vote or by equivalent free voting procedures. 

Article 22. 

Everyone, as a member of society, has the right to social security and is
entitled to realization, through national effort and international
co-operation and in accordance with the organization and resources of each
State, of the economic, social and cultural rights indispensable for his
dignity and the free development of his personality. 

Article 23. 

(1) Everyone has the right to work, to free choice of employment, to just
and favourable conditions of work and to protection against unemployment. 

(2) Everyone, without any discrimination, has the right to equal pay for
equal work. 

(3) Everyone who works has the right to just and favourable remuneration
ensuring for himself and his family an existence worthy of human dignity,
and supplemented, if necessary, by other means of social protection. 

(4) Everyone has the right to form and to join trade unions for the
protection of his interests. 

Article 24. 

Everyone has the right to rest and leisure, including reasonable
limitation of working hours and periodic holidays with pay. 

Article 25. 

(1) Everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health
and well-being of himself and of his family, including food, clothing,
housing and medical care and necessary social services, and the right to
security in the event of unemployment, sickness, disability, widowhood,
old age or other lack of livelihood in circumstances beyond his control. 

(2) Motherhood and childhood are entitled to special care and assistance.
All children, whether born in or out of wedlock, shall enjoy the same
social protection. 

Article 26. 

(1) Everyone has the right to education. Education shall be free, at least
in the elementary and fundamental stages. Elementary education shall be
compulsory. Technical and professional education shall be made generally
available and higher education shall be equally accessible to all on the
basis of merit. 

(2) Education shall be directed to the full development of the human
personality and to the strengthening of respect for human rights and
fundamental freedoms. It shall promote understanding, tolerance and
friendship among all nations, racial or religious groups, and shall
further the activities of the United Nations for the maintenance of peace. 

(3) Parents have a prior right to choose the kind of education that shall
be given to their children. 

Article 27. 

(1) Everyone has the right freely to participate in the cultural life of
the community, to enjoy the arts and to share in scientific advancement
and its benefits. 

(2) Everyone has the right to the protection of the moral and material
interests resulting from any scientific, literary or artistic production
of which he is the author. 

Article 28. 

Everyone is entitled to a social and international order in which the
rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration can be fully realized. 

Article 29. 

(1) Everyone has duties to the community in which alone the free and full
development of his personality is possible. 

(2) In the exercise of his rights and freedoms, everyone shall be subject
only to such limitations as are determined by law solely for the purpose
of securing due recognition and respect for the rights and freedoms of
others and of meeting the just requirements of morality, public order and
the general welfare in a democratic society. 

(3) These rights and freedoms may in no case be exercised contrary to the
purposes and principles of the United Nations. 

Article 30. 

Nothing in this Declaration may be interpreted as implying for any State,
group or person any right to engage in any activity or to perform any act
aimed at the destruction of any of the rights and freedoms set forth

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